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砖筑特别方案奖:马篷古布韦导览中心

2012-09-17 14:37 来源:

砖筑特别方案奖:马篷古布韦导览中心,马篷古布韦国家公园,南非SPECIAL Solution with Brick: Mapungubwe Interpretation Centre, Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa, 2009 建筑设计:彼得·里奇建筑事务所Architects: Peter Rich Architects

迷人的马篷古布韦国家公园位于南非共和国北部,靠近博茨瓦纳和津巴布韦的边界,很多个世纪之前,这里曾孕育过一个繁茂的文明。2003年,这里被列入教科文组织世界遗产名录,马篷古布韦王国在公元前1220-1027年间就位于这个地区,当时这里的主要人口是农牧民,但也有手工艺者、商人和矿工,形成了一个有着清晰层级的社会系统。当那个本地的畜牧业者将一些有趣的发现告知比勒陀利亚大学的时候,前南非政府却对铁器时代以来的黑人文明表现出极小的兴趣。但在种族隔离制度废除之后(1994年),事情逐渐发生了变化,最终,南非国家公园的行政部门委托彼得·里奇为这个区域设计一座导览中心(游客中心)。

这个选择再幸运不过了,因为里奇是一位来自于约翰内斯堡的勇敢且技艺高超的建筑师。说他勇敢,是因为他拒绝为前政府工作,并因此只拿到几栋房子的设计工作;作为替代,他将自己投身于对恩德贝勒人、Bantwane人、茨瓦纳人聚落的研究之中:“我观察了他们的房间,基于从场地的直观感受所抽象出的哲学进行设计。”但是,确切地说,什么是“导览中心呢”?作为展区的一种新形式,本区的发掘物可以在其最初的出土位置上得以更好地展示。更特别的是,它还是一个“可持续的博物馆”—与传统案例相比,它既不抢眼也不傲慢—它通过将当地人引入到整个实践过程中的方式,尝试为周围环境及地方传统带来更大的价值。在马篷古布韦的这个案例中,规划和技术决策催生了一种低成本、少能耗的建筑综合体。此外,雇佣本地工人的意义还体现在以下两个方面:一方面,有助于解决当地的失业问题;另一方面,工人们也开始了解一种相对简单且划算的新建筑技术。

这座新型综合体主要是由各种尺度的“拱形”临时展厅组成的,采用的是当地工人用黏土、5%的水泥以及水经由手工制成的“瓷砖”。在与英国剑桥大学的迈克尔·拉梅奇以及美国麻省理工学院的约翰·奥科申朵夫合作的过程中,他们对历史建筑案例,比如地中海圆顶进行了分析,主要借助一种新型软件省略其中的钢筋,从而达到对其建筑构造的仔细研究。里奇将圆顶分化出3种类型:“一种矩形或方形的拱顶结构,借由双曲抛物线通过扶壁自然地将水平压力传到圆周”,“一种缓坡的拱顶,跨在水平的结构支点上”,以及“一种圆形的鼓顶”,需要20万块以上的瓷砖才能实现。

导览中心位于一个因地质运动而形成的长300m、高30m的平顶斜坡上。它的轮廓不断地重复着,在景观中或进或退,但却并未因此造成感官印象上的突变,从而在这个神秘场所赋予新建筑一个“自然的”外观。

基于等边三角形的构图方案—作为对非洲文化中这些几何图形象征意义的致敬—导览中心形成了一系列的临时展厅、过渡空间、古墓的结构暗示、保护性路径、扶壁、楼梯和平台。它是一种感觉的连续,“意识状态”,参观者穿过的同时伴随着不同程度的光线照度。他们时而穿过黑暗的区域,那里只有从临时展厅的拱眼照射下来的光线,时而穿过有一系列带状装饰窗的区域,那里可能还被高大的桉树所遮挡着。在环程游览的最后,他们才意识到参观的路线是精心设计的,同时满足了主要动线和“兴趣提升点”的双重要求,他们被引领到山顶,也因此而享受到了不同寻常的景观。导览中心仿佛只是一条汇集信息的通道,而“真正的”博物馆则是马篷古布韦的自然风光,可以说是“豺的天下”。

对黏土的使用,以及对免烧砖和石材的使用,是一种对于深深植根于农业文明的古代元素的回归,期待与自然融合并牢记我们的起源。综合体的平面几乎是谨慎地适应着场地的地形,但以生存原则来讲,它却仿佛是很草率地以古代传统的名义,将自己过度地暴露于野生动物或竞争部落的危险面前。或者我们是不是应该对自然力量满怀尊重,这种力量在几世纪前就已经改变了林波波河的河床,因此我们不应该再去施加挑战。那么,我们为什么要这样做呢?为了证明我们的伟大,或者惯常的高傲以及对陌生人(白人)的无知,他们完全不了解这个世界,也不了解他们远离或认为过时的古代逻辑。

建造一座有意低调的导览中心,并为此选用最古老的建筑材料,被证明是一个非常聪明的想法。将此项目委托给这样一个人是相当成功的决定,他不仅是一名建筑师,而且还是一个对地方文化见解深刻并表现出对传统尊重的专家。结果是完美的,仿佛这座建筑一直生长于此

In the area were the fascinating Mapungubwe National Park now stands, in the northern part of the Republic of South Africa, close to the border with Botswana and Zimbabwe, a flourishing civilisation existed many centuries ago. From 1220 to 1027 BC, the Kingdom of Mapungubwe was located in this area, which was included on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2003: a region that was primarily populated by farmers and herdsmen, but also by craftsmen, merchants and miners with a social system determined by clearly defined social classes and hierarchies. When a local stock farmer informed the University of Pretoria after having made several interesting finds, the former South African state showed little interest in the history of a black civilisation from the Iron Age. After the abolition of apartheid (1994), things started to change gradually, and finally the administration of the South African National Park commissioned Peter Rich with the design of an Interpretation Centre (Visitor Centre) for this region.

The choice could not have been more fortunate, because Rich is a courageous and highly skilled architect from Johannesburg. Courageous, because he refused to work for the former government and therefore produced only a few buildings; instead he dedicated himself to research on the settlements of the Ndebele, Bantwane and Tswana people: "I looked at their rooms and designed something based on a philosophy derived from the sensuality of the location." But what exactly is an "Interpretation Centre"? A new form of exhibition area, where the findings discovered in the region are preferably exhibited in their original position. More specifically it is a "sustainable museum"-less obtrusive and arrogant as compared to traditional examples- which attempts to give the surrounding and its local traditions a greater value by involving the population in the realisation process. In the case of Mapungubwe, planning and technical decisions led to a building complex with low costs and minimal energy consumption. Furthermore, the employment of local workers was worthwhile in two respects: on the one hand, it helped to fight local unemployment, and on the other hand, the workers got to know a relatively simple and costeffective new building technique.

For the construction of the new complex, which mainly consists of "vaulted" pavilions of various sizes, those responsible opted for the use of "tiles", which were hand-made by local workers from loam, 5% cement and water. In collaboration with Michael Ramage, University of Cambridge, UK, and John Ochsendorf, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, historic building examples such as the Mediterranean (or Catalan) domes were analysed, in order to closely study these building structures, which were lightened by omitting the steel reinforcement, by means of a newly developed software. Rich differentiated three types of domes: "a rectangular or square vault taking the natural distribution of horizontal compression forces via the hyperbolic parabola through buttresses to the round", "a shallow pitched vault spanning between horizontal structural supports" and "a circular timbrel dome", which were realised with more than 200,000 tiles.

The Interpretation Centre is located on the slopes of a mesa with a length of 300m and a height of 30m, which was formed by geological events. Its profile repeatedly pushes into the landscape, withdraws again and thus prompts hardly perceptible changes, giving the new building a "natural" appearance in this mysterious place.

Based on a composition scheme from equilateral triangles-a homage to the symbolic meaning these geometrical figures have in the African culture – the Interpretation Centre forms a sequence of pavilions, transitions, structures reminiscent of burial mounds, protected paths, buttresses, stairs, and terraces. It is a succession of impressions, "states of mind", visitors pass through whilst being accompanied by more or less intensive incidences of light. They walk through dark zones, which are only illuminated through an oculus positioned in the centre of the pavilion's dome, and through areas with adorned windows, which are shielded by tall eucalyptus steles. At the end of the round tour they realise that the direction of movements is deliberate, fulfilling the dual role of arterial channel and "lift", which brings them to the top of the mesa, so that they can enjoy the fantastic landscape. Almost as if the Interpretation Centre only was a passageway to gather information, and the "true" museum was the nature of Mapungubwe, so to speak, "a place where jackals eat".

The use of loam as well as the decision in favour of tiles from unfired earth and stones is a return to an ancient element deeply rooted in the peasant culture, the wish to merge with nature and to remember our origins. The ground plan of the complex adapts to the site's topography, almost circumspect, as if it was unwise in the name of an ancient tradition, according to the law of survival, to expose oneself too much to the danger of wild animals or rival tribes. Or are we full of respect for the powers of nature, which already shifted the bed of the Limpopo River several centuries ago, and had therefore better not be challenged. And why should we? In order to prove our grandness, or the inevitable arrogance and ignorance of the stranger (the white man), who has understood nothing of the world, the ancient logic of which escapes him and which he considers obsolete.

Realising an intentionally inconspicuous Interpretation Centre and using the oldest building material for this purpose turned out to be a markedly clever idea. Entrusting a person with this project, who is not only an architect but also a profound expert in local cultures showing respect for their traditions, was an equally successful decision. The result is perfect, as if the building had always been in this place.□(Igor Maglica, Published in Brick'12 by Callwey)

设计团队/Design Team: 彼得·里奇,迈克尔·拉梅奇,约翰·奥科申朵夫/Peter Rich, Michael Ramage, John Ochsendorf建造目的/Building's Purpose: 国家公园导览中心(游客中心)/National Park Interpretation Centre (Visitor Centre)使用面积/Useable Floor Area: 1 500m2业主/Client: 南非国家公园/SAN Parks用砖类型/Brick Type: 手工免烧砖/Handmade unfired brick

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